Treaties Of Teoloyucan: Causes, Objectives And Consequences

The Treaties of Teoloyucan were documents that were signed on August 13, 1914 in Teoloyucan, State of Mexico, Mexico. The treaty was signed between the revolutionary army and the forces of Victoriano Huerta. These documents were the ones that marked the end of the cruelest stage of the Mexican Revolution.

The revolutionary army was represented by Álvaro Obregón and Lucio Blanco, while the federal army by General Gustavo A. Salas and Othón P. Blanco. In Mexico City it was represented by Eduardo Iturbe.

By Bain News Service [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

After 17 months of battle between the revolutionaries and the federals, the revolutionary forces were one step away from victory. Seeing the defeat of the federals, Victoriano Huerta decided to resign the Presidency of the Republic and go into exile on July 15, 1914.

The minutes consisted of two letters, one for each side, written simply and clearly. The document included how the eviction of the capital and disarmament of the federal forces would be carried out in order to establish guarantees in the country.

The Teoloyucan treaties is a document that has been considered as the one that gave rise to the Mexican Army that is known today. The treaties served to establish the surrender of the Federal Army and its subsequent dissolution.

Article index

  • one

    Causes

    • 1.1

      Civil War and American occupation

    • 1.2

      Resignation of Victoriano Huerta

  • two

    goals

    • 2.1

      Eviction from the capital

    • 2.2

      Dissolution of the Federal Army

  • 3

    Consequences

    • 3.1

      Faction War

    • 3.2

      War between the revolutionaries

  • 4

    Prominent figures

    • 4.1

      Venustiano Carranza

    • 4.2

      Victoriano Huerta

    • 4.3

      Alvaro Obregon

  • 5

    References

Causes

Civil War and American occupation

On February 18, 1913, Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila, received a telegram sent by Victoriano Huerta informing him that he had been authorized to receive the Executive Power; Huerta had betrayed the president, Francisco I. Madero. In addition, Huerta had imprisoned Madero and his cabinet, and was subsequently assassinated.

Carranza immediately summoned several deputies from the Local Congress and his closest collaborators. After that, he formally requested the Legislature to grant powers to ignore the usurping government of Victoriano Huerta.

These events unleashed a series of rebellions and uprisings among supporters of Huerta and Carranza, which later escalated into a bloody civil war.

On March 26, 1913, Carranza met with several revolutionary leaders at Hacienda Guadalupe to dictate and execute a document called the “Plan of Guadalupe.” It was a simple document which was unknown to the Huerta government.

Apart from the growing defeats that Huerta’s army suffered against the revolutionaries, it had to face simultaneously the invasion of the United States, on April 21, 1914.

Resignation of Victoriano Huerta

After 17 months of extreme struggle and despite the polarization presented by the main leaders of the Constitutionalist Army, the victory of the revolutionaries was one step away from victory. Venustiano Carranza’s forces advanced more and more, while the federals destroyed public spaces as a last resort.

Finally, on July 15, Victoriano Huerta resigned the presidency and left the country after appointing Francisco Carvajal as interim president. Álvaro Obregón sent an ultimatum to the new president asking him to declare if he was willing to surrender the square or defend it

After repairing the damage caused by the federal Army, the Obregón outpost reached the city of Teoloyucan. The new government tried to negotiate with the revolutionaries, however, they refused: their only objective was to hand over the capital, as well as the absolute dissolution of the Federal Army.

After several days of pressure from the revolutionaries, the Federal Government agreed to General Obregón’s negotiation in the town of Teoloyucan. At the meeting, an attempt was made to present the important points in such a way that the surrender and subsequent departure of the federal Army would end on good terms.

goals

Carvajal tried to overshadow the opposition forces; However, he surrendered before the remarkable revolutionary triumph for which he decided to hand over power. The interim president along with another group of international diplomats went to Teoloyucan to sign the treaty together with diplomats sent by Carranza.

On August 13, 1914, two minutes were drawn up, which were signed on the dashboard of an automobile. The first was signed by General Obregón, and the second by Eduardo Iturbe. The reasons why the Constitutionalist forces would enter the capital of the country were clearly explained:

Eviction from the capital

The minutes were drafted in a simple way, whose first request was: to completely evict the capital and avoid any quota of power on the part of the supporters of Huerta or Carvajal. Only Venustiano Carranza could make decisions about the nation.

The intention was also to appease Mexican society, which had been exposed to military confrontations and public disorder for several years, leaving high numbers of deaths.

Dissolution of the Federal Army

The intention of the revolutionary activists was the mobilization of each soldier throughout the Mexican territory. Each soldier had to wait for the new Constitutional Army to call them to resume their activities in order to restore order to the nation.

Consequences

Faction War

After the Treaties of Teoloyucan were signed, Obregón fulfilled Carranza’s mandate and advanced towards the capital, entering on August 15, 1914. Five days later, General Carranza finally arrived in Mexico City, sealing his evident triumph over Huerta.

A new movement arose that promoted the establishment of a Political Constitution, being linked the Treaties of Teoloyucan and the new Constitution.

After the text on the Treaties of Teoloyucan, a wave of armed violence was unleashed: Carranza’s break with Villa and Zapata. These war events are called the “Faction War.”

War between the revolutionaries

The revolutionary generals forced Carranza to leave power. Carranza agreed to resign on the condition that both Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata should likewise resign. Carranza’s intention was to first establish a fully constitutional government, developing social and political reforms.

The revolutionary Convention appointed Eulalio Gutiérrez President of Mexico for a period of 20 days, declaring himself in rebellion against Carranza. The civil war resumed, but this time in the hands of leaders of the same side. Villa and Zapata allied and took Mexico City.

The government of the Convention was weakened. The strongest leader was Villa and he prepared even more to achieve victory against the Constitutionalist Army. However, Obregón allied with Carranza as did the United States. The United States supported Carranza at that time, since it viewed Villa and Zapata as radicals.

Prominent figures

Venustiano Carranza

Venustiano Carranza was born on December 29, 1859. He was a leader of the Mexican Civil War after the overthrow of the dictator Porfirio Díaz. Carranza became the first president of the new Mexican republic.

He was the son of a landowner, so he quickly became involved in politics, specifically in 1877. In 1910, as governor of Coahuila, he joined Francisco Madero’s fight against Victoriano Huerta, who had assassinated Madero.

Carranza was an ardent nationalist who was involved in serious controversies with the United States. He never agreed with the invasion of the United States in Veracruz, despite the fact that it was directed towards his enemy Huerta.

After fleeing into the mountains on horseback, he was betrayed and killed on the night of May 20-21.

Victoriano Huerta

Victoriano Huerta was born on March 23, 1845. He was a Mexican politician and military man who reached the presidency of the country in 1913. Huerta was one of the leaders of the coup against the presidency of Francisco Madero. In addition, he was responsible for the assassination of Madero and the vice president.

He was of indigenous roots, which is that time was a great obstacle to achieve great goals and even study. However, Huerta had attended the municipal school obtaining a position. As a reward for his work, he was offered a scholarship to study at the Military College.

Huerta joined the General Staff of the government led by Porfirio Díaz. The military man acquired fame after participating in the armed uprisings whose main protagonists were the indigenous people.

Victoriano Huerta tries to enter Mexico, is arrested for the second time and dies in prison on January 13, 1916.

Alvaro Obregon

Álvaro Obregón is a soldier, statesman, and reformer who was born on February 19, 1880, in Álamos, Mexico. As president, he restored order in Mexico after a long day of political upheaval and civil war.

Obregón had little formal education. Despite this, he learned about the needs and desires of poor Mexicans in his work as a farmer and laborer. In 1912 he led a group of volunteers in support of President Francisco Madero.

When Huerta assassinated President Madero, Obregón joined Venustiano Carranza against the dictator.

Obregón continued to support Carranza against the challenges of the rebel leaders of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. During one of the campaigns against Villa, Obregón lost his right arm. He was assassinated at the hands of José de León Toral on July 17, 1928, Mexico City.

References

  1. Signature of the treaties of Teoloyucan, writers of cultura.gob.mx, (nd). Taken from cultura.gob.mx
  2. The Treaties of Teoloyucan, Valentín García Márquez, (2015). Taken from archivos.juridica.unam.mx
  3. Treatises of Teoloyucan, writers of cultura.gob.mx, (nd). Taken from cultura.gob.mx
  4. Venustiano Carranza, writers for britannica.com, (nd). Taken from britannica.com
  5. Álvaro Obregón, writers for britannica.com, (nd). Taken from britannica.com
  6. Mexican Revolution, wikipedia in English, (nd). Taken from wikipedia.org

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