The 5 Main Characteristics Of The Iturbide Empire

Some characteristics of the Iturbide Empire are its short duration and its bad economic policies. The Iturbide Empire was a very short-lived state that emerged after revolutionary movements against the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

It existed for just two years, between 1822 and 1824. A
Although it was established in the form of a Monarchy, it is recognized as the First Mexican Empire free from the control of the Crown of Spain.

Several of the treaties signed in the Independence of Mexico indicated that the throne should be occupied by a Spanish figure, however they refused to recognize the new Empire, so with the help of several military men the position of sovereign fell into the hands of Agustín de Iturbide.

Outstanding characteristics of the Iturbide Empire

Iturbide and his thought were key in the riot

Agustín de Iturbide

Its short duration is normally associated with certain policies implemented by Iturbe, which were extremely unpopular and led to the growth of numerous pockets of opposition to his government.

1- Territorial organization

Putting aside the political decisions that led to its fall, the Iturbide Empire continues to be the period during which Mexican territory reached its greatest extent.

After proclaiming its sovereignty with respect to Spain, all the territory comprised by the Viceroyalty of New Spain became part of Mexico, except for a few captaincies general.

The domains of the Empire ranged from the state of Oregon (currently part of the United States), through several American states, present-day Mexico and various Central American regions that had just become independent from Spain.

Specifically Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

2- Government model

In 1821 the Mexican state was created with the appointment of a congress, despite the constant Spanish refusals to send a representative to act as political leader, they left the position of the presidency empty.

Finally, in May 1822, thanks to the action of several influential soldiers, a movement began seeking the ascent to the throne of Iturbide.

In June of the same year, the congress formalized the coronation, which took place on July 20, 1822.

3- Opposition to Iturbide

Recreation of the coronation of Iturbide

Iturbide coronation

From its beginnings, the Iturbide Empire had strong opposition from republican sectors. They did not see confidence in his figure, whose decisions plunged the newly created Empire into a social and economic crisis.

Faced with these acts, Iturbide decided to dissolve the congress and create a chamber of deputies who were loyal to him, however this could never happen.

Just a year after his coronation, in 1823, movements began to emerge calling for his dismissal, in addition to the establishment of a Republic instead of a Monarchy, which would happen in 1824.

4- Economy

Perhaps the main characteristic of the Iturbide Empire was the series of wrong policies that plunged the entire territory into an economic crisis.

With a growing foreign debt, the opposition considered that the government “squandered” the scarce wealth of the country trying to promote an unreal image about the Empire.

Corruption, loans with very high interest rates and prohibitions in many of the economic activities of the time created a general discontent, motivating riots and civil uprisings.

5- Fall

The town quickly turned against Iturbide, who abdicated in 1823 and fled to Italy. He was persuaded to return only to be immediately arrested and sentenced to death.

He was shot on July 19, 1824 in Padilla. After his abdication, the Second Mexican Empire emerged.


  1. The Empire of Iturbide (September 15, 2015). Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from Jalisco Actual.
  2. Emperor Agustin de Iturbide of Mexico (June 1, 2015). Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from Searching in History.
  3. Iturbide Empire (October 25, 2009). Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from Imperio Iturbide.
  4. Agustín I (April 1, 2014). Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from Biography.
  5. Aníbal Gonzales 818 May 2011). First Mexican Empire. Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from Current History.
  6. Agustín de Iturbide (January 28, 2016). Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from The Famous People.
  7. Government of Agustín de Iturbide (sf). Retrieved on October 8, 2017, from Genealogía de México.

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