How Is The Information Organized?

There are many resources to organize information effectively
The information is organized through various resources, such as the different graphic organizers (diagrams and concept maps, among others) and writing techniques such as the essay.

These tools can be used at any level, since their main objective is to optimize either study or problem solving. They help to determine the hierarchy of main and secondary ideas, exclude repeated concepts and find relationships between them.

During the process of organizing information, the student is able to link new learning with previous knowledge. And for those who need to solve technical, managerial or logistics problems, it helps them to outline the panorama of the situation and determine possible solutions.

Another advantage of these resources is that they help to present information in a more attractive and easy-to-understand way, as well as to communicate ideas more effectively. This significantly increases the possibility of more efficient learning.

Schematics

They serve to capture the most important ideas about a topic, distinguishing between main ideas and secondary ideas.

The following steps apply to both an outline and a graphic organizer:

  • Familiarize yourself with the content through a quick read.
  • Carry out a second, deeper reading, underlining the main ideas and, if necessary, making notes in the margin.
  • Create a title for the topic and subtitles for the main and secondary ideas, establishing a hierarchy.
  • Summarize the content of each idea based on the readings made.

Schematic examples

Key scheme

It is a classic study outline, also known as a synoptic chart . The ideas are distributed in a hierarchical way, using brackets or brackets to separate each item or section.

Classic key diagram or synoptic table. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Circular scheme

In this scheme circles or ovals are used to frame the ideas. The theme is highlighted in the center, and around it the main ideas are distributed, and around these, the secondary ones. The whole is connected through lines.

Example of a circular diagram. Source: F. Zapata

Indentation scheme

This hierarchical scheme, usually numbered, can be used whether it is written by hand or if you use a word processor, which has the tools to add numbering and indentation.

The indentation is the space that according to custom is left before starting a paragraph. In the case of the indentation or indentation scheme, this space helps organize ideas.

The outline begins with the heading of the text, in which the topic is named, and then the main ideas are placed in order and numbered. Below each of these are secondary ideas, such as details and sub-details.

Indentation scheme. Source: F. Zapata

Rehearsal

It consists of writing an academic text about a special topic, in which the concepts related to it are reflected according to the author’s point of view. It consists of three main parts:

  • Introduction
  • Body
  • conclusion
The writing style is rather formal, and the writing is aimed at the general public, both those who know the subject and those who do not. For this reason, it is important to support the essay with good references, also using clear, simple and neutral language, and with well-organized content.

Conceptual maps

It is a graphic resource in which the concepts related to a topic are enclosed in a box and linked through connectors in the form of a line. It is distinguished from the circular scheme because, next to the connector, a phrase is written that complements the concept, forming a proposition.

The concept map is drawn respecting the hierarchy of concepts, as shown in the following example map, whose main topic is the digestive system. This particular scheme contains three levels of hierarchy and summarizes the parts of the system with their respective functions.

Concept map example. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Gowin’s V

It is a diagram in the shape of a large letter V, in whose inner center the subject or problem to be analyzed is placed.

On the left side the related concepts are exposed, while on the right side the methodology used to solve the question is exposed.

Cause-Effect Diagram

It is also known as the Ishikawa diagram after its creator, the Japanese chemist Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989), a world authority on quality control at the University of Tokyo.

The diagram is often drawn like a fish bone, with the problem leading the way. On one side, on each spine, the respective causes and effects are placed.

Cause-Effect Diagram. Source: F. Zapata

Mental maps

It is a graphic organizer of concepts linked through images, drawings, signs, symbols and text. It was devised and promoted by the British psychologist Tony Buzan (1942-2019), in the mid-1970s.

To create a mind map, you start with a main idea or theme, which is placed in the central position, and from there the secondary themes radiate in all directions.

There is freedom to design the map being able to use colors, drawings with which the designer links different concepts with the main theme and connectors of various types. The closer an idea is to the main topic, the thicker the connector that links them.

Mind maps can be drawn by hand, but also through applications and computer programs, which contain the necessary tools to unleash creativity.

Example of a mind map. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Problem-solution

This graphic organizer is used to solve all kinds of problems. The first step in implementing it is to carefully define and delimit the problem in question, and once this is done, possible solutions are developed.

The problem-solution scheme can be presented in textbooks on any subject.

Problem-solution scheme

Boards

Tables are widely used resources to organize information in a summarized way, and also to work in an orderly way with numerical data, facilitating its manipulation.

A table consists of a grid, in which the rows and columns are identified. Each cell in the grid contains one record, which can be a number, text, or a combination of both.

When the table is used to summarize the main characteristics of a topic it is often called a synoptic table , although this term can be applied to other graphic organizers described above, such as the brace scheme.

The advantage of summary tables in tabular form is not only to summarize the topic, but also to make connections between main and secondary ideas, as well as to easily locate information.

Tables are also widely used to compare characteristics of a topic or summarize similarities and differences, in the form of comparative tables . To give a few examples, comparison charts are very useful when studying topics such as:

• Direct current and alternating current

• Inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry

• Insulators, conductors and semiconductors

• Electric field and magnetic field

And many more.

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