Branches Of Computing And What They Study

The most important branches of computing are information technology, cybernetics, robotics, computing, office automation and telematics. Each of them are dedicated to particular aspects of computing.

Informatics is the automation of the processes of sending and receiving information. It is derived from the words information and automatic that refer to the set of information technologies through which a device can store information and share it without the intervention or with the intervention of a human being.

branches of computing

A living example of computing can be the Google search engine. Computer science makes it possible for a person searching for a certain term, concept or word to find information that meets their needs.

Google, through its search engines, makes it possible for the person in front of the screen to find the required information in a few seconds, at
It is contrary to the manual forms of research that were used before the computer age in which you had to search for information in books.

Precisely in automation lies the importance of computing. Computing empowers the end user to process information digitally at small and large scales.

From this, the branches of computing have become almost essential tools in the mathematical, biological, computational and even social fields.

Main branches of computing

Computer science is recognized by many scholars as a branch of information engineering and has in turn some branches or specialties that deal with specific areas of information and how to present it.

Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the most important branch of computing and refers to the use of any computer, storage system, networks and other mechanical devices, means and methods to found, resolve, collect, safeguard and exchange all the types and forms of electronic information.

Information technology contains various physical pieces of equipment, called “hardware.” It also includes virtualization and data management or processing instruments, operating systems and applications, called “software”. Both hardware and software are used to perform critical functions.

End-user terminals, peripherals, and software, such as laptops, smartphones, or even recording equipment, can be included in the IT domain.

It can also refer to the architectures, methodologies and regulations governing the use and storage of data.

IT architectures have evolved to include virtualization and cloud computing, where physical resources are summarized and grouped in different configurations to meet application requirements.

Clouds can be distributed across locations and shared with other IT users, or in a corporate data center, or in some combination of both deployments.

Clear and simple examples of information technology are Google Drive and Google Docs. Massively used tools that are used to store, protect and share information between one user and another.

Cybernetics

This branch of computer science refers to the science of providing a solution for a specific problem, regarding communication between people, animals or devices.

The main objective of cybernetics and the reason why it was created is to stimulate understanding of systems and make them more efficient and productive based on a recurring need.

Due to the aforementioned, cybernetics can be exemplified in the automation of some processes such as the voicemail of a phone call, simulations of any kind, adaptive systems, artificial intelligence and robotics.

Everything that has a system and can be improved is the field of cybernetics and its branches.

The greatest exponent of cybernetics of this century was Norbert Wiener who wrote a book called “Cybernetics” in 1948.

In the book Wiener expresses that cybernetics is the means through which actions are carried out through a prior transmission of information.

That said, the thought was established that not only living systems can make use of cybernetics but also non-living systems, machines. From then on, robotics and artificial intelligence began to be explored.

Robotics

Robotics is the branch of computer science that is responsible for the design, assembly and operations of robots.

Robots are machines with a certain degree of intelligence that can be programmed to perform tasks at a level similar to that of humans, in order to automate some process.

Robotics has been used for years to create robots that can perform certain actions in places or situations where humans normally cannot.

For example, if an apartment is about to collapse, it is better to use a robot that has rescue skills than to send a rescuer who could be hurt or seriously injured.

Because robots follow the instructions of humans, robotics can be understood to serve as a means through which an individual communicates with the environment remotely.

computing

It is the branch of computer science that is oriented to the creation of computers to achieve a specific objective.

In the case of the calculator, for example, the goal is to solve complex mathematical calculations that would take a long time to solve manually. The calculator is an expression of computation.

Through computing, algorithms (mathematical sequences) are created that assume a specific final action or result, that is, information is preloaded from the results, such as 2 + 2 is equal to 4.

Through computing, computing technologies such as operating systems and software programs are created, in addition to the hardware that a specific software uses to carry out an action.

For example, creating a video card (hardware) and developing Photoshop (software) to edit an image.

Office automation

It refers to the automation of the processes by which information is created, stored, protected and shared within the business sector.

The fundamental pillar of office automation is the LAN network, through which data can be transferred from one user to another.

Office automation favors the speed with which tasks are carried out within an office, eliminates the need for a large staff, uses less space to collect data and improves the creation of documents with vital information through multiple and simultaneous updates.

Telematics

Telematics refers to the combination of telecommunications and computing. It is defined as the emission, acceptance and collection of information between two mobile devices (car, cell phone, GPS, among others) that is carried out using telecommunications.

References

  1. Alavudeen, A .; Venkateshwaran, N. (2010), Computer Integrated Manufacturing, PHI Learning, ISBN 978-81-203-3345-1
  2. Bynum, Terrell Ward (2008), “Norbert Wiener and the Rise of Information Ethics”, in van den Hoven, Jeroen; Weckert, John, Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-85549-5
  3. Beynon-Davies P. (2002). Information Systems: an introduction to informatics in Organizations. Palgrave, Basingstoke, UK. ISBN 0-333-96390-3
  4. William Melody et al., Information and Communication Technology: Social Sciences Research and Training: A Report by the ESRC Program on Information and Communication Technologies, ISBN 0-86226-179-1, 1986.
  5. Wiener, Norbert (1948). Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  6. Nocks, Lisa (2007). The robot: the life story of a technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  7. Denning, Peter (July 1999). “COMPUTER SCIENCE: THE DISCIPLINE”. Encyclopaedia of Computer Science (2000 Edition).
  8. The Electronic Sweatshop: How Computers Are Transforming the Office of the Future into the Factory of the Past, [by] Barbara Garson. New York: Penguin Books, 1989, cop. 1988. ISBN 0-14-012145-5.

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