Australian Bioregion: Characteristics, Climate, Flora, Fauna

The Australian or Australasia bioregion is an area located in southwestern Oceania between the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. It reaches the areas of Australia, New Zealand and Melanesia.

Its area of ​​7.7 million km2 is determined by the deep interrelationship between its territory, its population, its climate and its extraordinary ecosystem of plants and animals.

It has the most exuberant biodiversity in the world. Many of its natural spaces are World Heritage Sites, such as the Great Barrier Reef – the largest coral reef on the planet – or Mount Augustus, considered the largest monolith on earth.

Characteristics of the Australian Bioregion

Fauna

Its habitat allows to conserve diverse fascinating and unique species in the world; there are different types of mammals, birds and reptiles.

Among the mammals, the marsupials and monotremes stand out; The former are identified by a pouch or pouch in which they carry their young until fully developed, such as the kangaroo, koala, wombats and the Tasmanian devil.

Monotremes lay eggs instead of having their young through their bellies like the strange platypus and echidna.

In this region, birds such as the emu, the kookaburras, the lyre bird and the cockatoo coexist. Among the reptiles there are lizards, crocodiles, monitor lizards and the Australian dragon.

There are also species recognized as the most poisonous on the planet and deadly for humans.

Among them: the sea wasp, the blue-ringed octopus and a multiplicity of poisonous fish, snakes, scorpions and spiders.

Flora

Its diverse and exclusive vegetation is distinguished, which according to the area is evidenced in jungles, forests, grasslands, mangroves, swamps and deserts surrounded by oceanic water.

Although part of this region is desert with little fertile soils, it is estimated that there are around 27,700 different species of plants with a predominance of trees and shrubs. Among them the impressive variety of eucalyptus and acacias.

The presence of living fossils such as the cicada and the grass tree stands out. Also wild flowers of vivid colors.

Among the variety of its forests, there is the Tasmania Nature Reserve, a World Heritage Site, in which some of the oldest trees on the planet can be appreciated, including the Huon pine.

Weather

The climate is variable, mostly desert or semi-arid. It is one of the driest regions in the world, which is affected by low atmospheric pressure.

Due to its extensive geography, there are differences in terms of the climate of some and other areas. Thus, to the north it has a tropical climate, with high temperatures and humidity and dry and rainy seasons.

To the south the oceanic and temperate climate predominates. Towards the downtown area, high temperatures are observed during the day and intense cold at night, and can reach 0 ° with very little rain.

References

  1. “Australia: its habitats and animals” in Biopedia. Retrieved on September 17, 2017 from Biopedia: biopedia.com.
  2. Guerrero, P. “Australasia” (March 2012) in La Guía. Retrieved on September 17, 2017 from La Guía: geografia.laguia2000.com.
  3. Hincapie, C. “Australian Flora and Fauna” (February, 2013) in Australia. Retrieved on September 17, 2017 in Australia: australia26.blogspot.com.es.
  4. “Wild Nature: Extreme Fauna of Australia” (October, 2014) in Lists. Retrieved on September 17, 2017 from Lists: lists.20minutos.es
  5.  Pedrera, M. “Flora and Fauna of Australia” in Experience Australia. Retrieved on September 17, 2017 in Experience Australia: experienceaustralia.net.

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